Carroll, J., Peterson, A., and Caffrey, C., "Fuel Effects Study with Small (<19kW) Spark-Ignited Off-Road Equipment Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2517, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2517.
This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and the United States Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on nine types of off-road equipment with small (<19kW) spark-ignited engines including handheld and non-handheld equipment utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling.The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.