Guo, M., Kishi, R., Shi, B., Ogata, Y. et al., "Cross-Flow Effect on Behavior of Fuel Spray Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Gasoline Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2553, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2553.
Spray characteristics are of great importance to achieve fuel economy and low emissions for a D.I. gasoline engine. In this study, the characteristics of the fuel spray as well as its interaction with a cross-flow were investigated. The fuel was injected by a VCO injector into an optically accessible rectangular wind tunnel under the normal temperature and pressure, in which the direction of the injection was perpendicular to the direction of the cross-flow. The velocity of the cross-flow varied from 0 to 10 m/s while the injection pressure was 5 and 10 MPa. With using the high speed video camera and the PIV system, the spray profile, velocity distribution and the penetration distance were measured. The lower penetration distance can be obtained with the lower injection pressure and the increased velocity of the cross-flow, however the injected fuel expands along the direction of the cross-flow, which indicates that spray atomization and mixing of fuel and air are enhanced. Along the direction of cross flow, the horizontal component of the atomized droplet speed was even higher than the velocity of the cross flow in the spray tip region.