Jung, Y., Qi, D., and Bae, C., "Assessment of Soot Particles in an Exhaust Gas for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with High EGR in a Heavy Duty Compression Ignition Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2572, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2572.
The characteristics of soot particles in an exhaust gas for low temperature diesel combustion (LTC) compared with conventional combustion in a compression ignition engine were experimentally investigated by the elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Morphology of soot particles was also studied by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the result of the TGA, the water can be evaporated until about 150°C for both combustion regimes. The soot particles for LTC contained more volatile hydrocarbons, which can be easily evaporated from 200°C to 420°C compared with conventional diesel combustion. The soot oxidation for conventional combustion occurs up to 600°C, on the other hand the particles for LTC is oxidized below 520°C. Elemental analysis showed higher oxygen weight fraction resulted from the oxygenated hydrocarbon for the soot particles in LTC. TEM has shown primary particles to be in a diameter range of 20 to 50 nm for conventional diesel combustion. Soot aggregates for LTC were comprised of smaller primary particles with a range between 10 and 20 nm. The aggregates for LTC have relatively nebulous boundary rather than that for conventional diesel combustion. The aggregates without distinguishable boundary can grow due to the low combustion temperature and abundant hydrocarbon species.