Ball, D., Negohosian, C., Ross, D., Moser, D. et al., "Comparison of Cold Start Calibrations, Vehicle Hardware and Catalyst Architecture of 4-Cylinder Turbocharged Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(4):1922-1933, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2593.
Higher fuel costs and lower greenhouse gas standards, especially CO2, have compelled vehicle manufacturers to downsize engines while simultaneously using turbochargers on more of their applications. The application of turbochargers improves fuel economy as well as torque and power. However, this also results in lower exhaust temperatures which can challenge the ability of three-way catalysts to achieve low emission levels. This work investigates and compares the catalyst heat-up strategies, hardware, and catalyst architecture of four turbocharged 4-cylinder vehicles: a 2010 VW 2.0L DI, a 2013 Chevy Malibu 2.0L DI, a 2013 Ford Fusion 1.6L DI, and a 2013 Dodge Dart 1.4L Multi-Air. In addition, three emission studies are presented. One study will show a strategy to reduce PGM concentrations in a close-coupled (CC) catalyst. Another study will show how different catalysts respond to deceleration fuel cut offs and the third study will show how HC traps can be effective at reducing HC emissions with complementary air/fuel calibration.