Lim, K. and Cho, J., "New 1.4ℓ SI Engine Development with the Aluminum Thermal Spray Coated Counter Spiny Thin-Wall Cast Iron Liner," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2641, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2641.
For the lightweight and compact cylinder block, new cast iron liner was developed, which has counter spiny form on the out side of the liner. Additionally, the outer surface was spray-coated with Aluminum in order to enhance the heat conductivity and to increase the grip force between the liner and the block. Without any redesign of cylinder block or crankshaft, the displacement of the engine could be increased from 1.25ℓ to 1.4ℓ by adapting this new liner only. This liner enabled to expand the engine displacement without both great dimension changes and production facility changes.