Sivasubrahmaniyan, A., T, S., and Ravi, M., "Evolution of 4 Wheeler Emission Legislation in India vis-à-vis with European," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2758, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2758.
Indian Bharat Stage (BS) vehicular emission norms were introduced in the year 2000 which was two emission stages behind Europe. During last decade India has progressed faster compared to Europe and have implemented BS-IV emission norms in 2010 which is one stage behind Europe. This paper reviews progress of Indian vehicular emissions, and On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) legislations. Further, it also explores the technology advancements in engine emission control devices and Fuel quality happened due to tightening of emission norms.