Mancaruso, E., Sequino, L., Vaglieco, B., and Ciaravino, C., "Coking Effect of Different FN Nozzles on Injection and Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0039, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-24-0039.
Interest on the issue of diesel injector nozzle deposits is rising in the last years due to its effects on engine performance. The alteration of nozzles geometry can cause a difference in fuel mass flow and influence smoke emission.Investigation on the effects of nozzle coking in a diesel injector has been the topic of this paper. The experiments have been carried out in a single cylinder optical engine operating in premixed mode. The head of a Euro 5 production engine has been mounted on an elongated cylinder and the production CR injection system has been used. A sapphire window has been set in the piston head in order to have visible access to phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber. Three injectors with decreasing flow number (FN) have been tested. Engine has been fed with commercial diesel fuel. High spatial and temporal resolution camera has been used for the acquisition of in-cylinder injection and combustion images. It allowed obtaining interesting information about the process evolution in the bowl volume. Injectors have shown reduced performance after the coking procedure. Moreover, dependence from the FN has been observed. The alteration of injection parameters and the worsening of air/fuel mixture are the main detectable effects.