Michel, P., Charlet, A., Colin, G., Chamaillard, Y. et al., "Pollution Constrained Optimal Energy Management of a Gasoline-HEV," SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0083, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-24-0083.
In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), the electrical hybridization offers different ways to reduce the fuel consumption: kinetic energy recuperation during vehicle deceleration, possibility of stopping the engine, and intelligent Energy Management System (EMS). Besides, with the future more stringent standards, there is a need to integrate the pollutant emissions in the EMS, since strictly reducing the fuel consumption can increase the emissions.The paper presents an optimal energy management strategy with constraints on pollutant emissions for gasoline-HEV, taking into account the 3-Way Catalyst Converter (3WCC). Based on a complete model of the powertrain, a mixed fuel consumption / pollutant emissions performance index is minimized with the Pontryaguin Minimum Principle (PMP) and two states, the battery State Of Charge and the 3WCC temperature. Simulation results are presented showing that simply including the 3WCC dynamics in the pollutant emissions leads to a 1-state problem, easier to solve and giving better results for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants emissions, with a lesser use of the battery.