The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards.The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.The simulation results indicate that either EGR or SCR based solutions can be used to achieve Stage IIIB NOx limits for the 560 kW engine, with an acceptable trade-off regarding BSFC in the case of EGR solutions. In the case of EGR, though, a DPF is necessary to meet Stage IIIB PM limits. Furthermore, SCR based solutions have the potential to go beyond the Stage IIIB NOx limit by scaling up the size of the SCR device and the on-board urea storage.