Amanatidis, S., Ntziachristos, L., Samaras, Z., Janka, K. et al., "Applicability of the Pegasor Particle Sensor to Measure Particle Number, Mass and PM Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0167, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-24-0167.
The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) has been earlier presented by Ntziachristos et al. (SAE Paper 2011-01-0626) as a novel small and robust instrument that can be directly installed in the exhaust line to measure exhaust particles without any dilution. The instrument is based on the electrical detection of aerosol. It is increasingly being used to measure exhaust particles from engines and vehicles with different exhaust configurations. In this study, a number of tests have been conducted using two sensors in parallel, one directly installed in the tailpipe and one installed in the CVS, side by side to the PM sampling filter. Aim of the study was to make recommendations on the proper use of the sensor and to check how the sensor signal compares to particulate mass, soot concentration, and particle number. A first finding is that external heating has to be provided to the sensor to avoid condensation. Second, very good linearity of the sensor signal is established for all three particle concentrations examined. The only exception was PM at very low concentrations, where positive adsorption artifacts determine the mass collected on the filter. Also, the original calibration provided with the sensor offers a satisfactory match with the absolute level of mass and number measured with other instruments. Improving this requires either specific calibration of the sensor for a particular emission source, or, at least, knowledge of the particle size distribution.