Iyer, N., Posada, F., and Bandivadekar, A., "Technical Assessment of Emission and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential from Two and Three Wheelers in India," SAE Technical Paper 2013-26-0050, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-26-0050.
The large fleet share and rapid growth of two and three wheeler vehicles in India means that careful attention must be paid to reducing emissions and fuel consumption from these vehicles. Emission standards and emission control technologies employed in passenger vehicles have not fully migrated to two and three wheelers. Fuel economy standards and advanced fuel efficient technologies, which offer great potential for reducing sector energy consumption, have also not been implemented for this important mode of transportation. This paper contains an overview of the engine technology changes and after-treatment systems being employed by Indian two and three-wheeler manufacturers to meet the Bharat Stage-III emission standards. An assessment of technical options to meet future emission standards is discussed. Adoption of evaporative emissions and on-board diagnostic systems technologies are discussed as well. Finally, the paper presents a wide array of potential technologies for reducing fuel consumption of two and three wheelers along with an estimation of fuel consumption reductions possible and preliminary cost estimates.