Regner, G., Johnson, D., Koszewnik, J., Dion, E. et al., "Modernizing the Opposed Piston, Two Stroke Engine for Clean, Efficient Transportation," SAE Technical Paper 2013-26-0114, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-26-0114.
Opposed-piston (OP) engines were once widely used in ground and aviation applications and continue to be used today on ships. Offering both fuel efficiency and cost benefits over conventional, four-stroke engines, the OP architecture also features size and weight advantages. Despite these advantages, however, historical OP engines have struggled with emissions and oil consumption. Using modern technology, science and engineering, Achates Power has overcome these challenges. The result: an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine design that provides a step-function improvement in brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional engines while meeting the most stringent, mandated emissions requirements.