R, A., S, J., V, S., E, P. et al., "Experimental Investigation of CRDI Engine Combustion and Gear-Shift Optimization to Meet Stringent Tail-Pipe Emissions for SUV Application," SAE Technical Paper 2013-26-0133, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-26-0133.
Brazil has implemented a new emission regulation for Light commercial vehicles named PROCONVE L6. This regulation follows Environmental Protection Act (EPA) driving cycle; FTP75. This cycle simulates an urban route of 12.07 km with frequent stops. The maximum speed is 91.2 km/h and the average speed is 31.5 km/h. The regulation has proposed that the gear shift pattern of the manual transmission vehicle can be varied according to the manufacturer's specification.This has lead to the strategy of optimizing gear shift pattern without compromising diesel combustion and engine-out emission with optimized exhaust-gas treatment-devices. The emission is demonstrated to Brazilan Authorities with good margins.