Li, K., Ido, M., Ogata, Y., Nishida, K. et al., "Effect of Spray/Wall Interaction on Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation in Two-Dimensional Piston Cavity," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(4):2061-2071, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-32-9021.
The effects of spray/wall interaction on diesel combustion and soot formation in a two-dimensional piston cavity were studied with a high speed color video camera in a constant volume combustion vessel. The two-dimensional piston cavity was applied to generate the impinging spray flame. In the cavity, the flat surface which plays a role as the cylinder head has a 13.5 degree angle with the injector axis and the impinging point was located 30 mm away from the nozzle tip. Three injection pressures of 100, 150, and 200 MPa and a single hole diesel injector (hole diameter: 0.133mm) were selected. The flame structure and combustion process were examined by using the color luminosity images. Two-color pyrometry was used to measure the line-of sight soot temperature and concentration by using the R and B channels of the color images. The soot mass generated by impinging spray flame is higher than that of the free spray flame. As injection pressure increases to 200 MPa, the gap of soot levels between impinging spray flame and free spray flame becomes unobvious. In the impinging spray flame, the high soot concentration is observed in the head vortex region, whereas in the free spray flame, it was seen inside of and near the tip of the flame.