Steinbrecher, C., Reineke, B., Berkemer, J., Heikes, H. et al., "Online Engine Speed Based Adaptation of Air Charge for Two- Wheelers," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(4):2085-2091, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-32-9037.
Regarding the strongly growing two-wheeler market fuel economy, price and emission legislations are in focus of current development work. Fuel economy as well as emissions can be improved by introduction of engine management systems (EMS). In order to provide the benefits of an EMS for low cost motorcycles, efforts are being made at BOSCH to reduce the costs of a port fuel injection (PFI) system.The present paper describes a method of how to reduce the number of sensors of a PFI system by the use of sophisticated software functions based on high-resolution engine speed evaluation. In order to improve the performance of a system working without a MAP-sensor (manifold air pressure sensor) an air charge feature (ACFn) based on engine speed is introduced. It is shown by an experiment that ACFn allows to detect and adapt changes in manifold air pressure. Cross-influences on ACFn are analyzed by simulations and engine test bench measurements. Whereas the air-fuel ratio can be neglected, the temperature influence has to be considered. Finally, additional applications of engine speed based features for small engine control are discussed. Algorithms for ignition angle optimization and air-fuel ratio adaptation are part of the current development work at Bosch.