Nanostructures of diesel and biodiesel engine particulate matters (PMs) were investigated by using a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The average single particle sizes of biodiesel and diesel PMs are approximately 30-40 nm and 50-60 nm, respectively. Image processing process was used to estimate each carbon platelet length by using TEM image. The average carbon platelet length of biodiesel and diesel PMs are in the range of 0.1-7.0 nm. Moreover, carbon atoms per cubic volume of PMs are approximately 500-900. The result shows that engine load and fuel property are strongly impact on the size of single particle and carbon atom density of particle. This is one of interesting behaviors need to be investigated for better understanding. The results of this research would be used as basic information for design and develop removing process of PM emitted from engine combustion which using in diesel and biodiesel fuels.