Elnady, T., Abom, M., and Yang, Y., "Systematic Optimization of an Exhaust System to Meet Noise Radiation Criteria at Idle," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 7(3):915-926, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0006.
Exhaust noise is a major contributor to the radiated noise level of a vehicle, especially at idle. The radiated noise level has to meet a certain criteria based on regulation and consumer demand. In many cases, the problem appears after the vehicle is manufactured and the tailpipe noise measurement is performed indicating a high noise level that needs to be reduced. This paper describes one of those cases where the radiated noise level of a certain passenger car at idle was required to be reduced by 6 dB(A). The exhaust system consists of one main muffler and one auxiliary muffler. A 1D two-port model of the exhaust system including the two mufflers was built using commercial software. This model was validated against the measurement of the two-port matrix of both mufflers. The model was then used together with tailpipe noise measurements to estimate the characteristics of the source strength and impedance. Using a 1D model of the complete system, it was possible to propose several modifications for the vehicle manufacturer to choose from. A systematic optimization approach is presented in this paper describing several suggestions to reduce the radiated tailpipe noise.