Ashby, R., Jeong, J., Rao, S., Heydinger, G. et al., "A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 7(1):8-18, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0118.
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.