Berkheimer, J., Tang, J., Boyce, B., and Aswani, D., "Electric Grid Integration Costs for Plug-In Electric Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 3(1):1-11, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0344.
This paper evaluates the hidden costs of Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) integration into the electric grid. The topic of PEV infrastructure is traditionally associated with the direct costs of installing chargers. However, there is also the indirect cost of infrastructure upgrades required upstream of the customer service point (meter). This is a case study of indirect infrastructure costs for PEV integration along with ways to mitigate and manage this cost transferred to customers for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The costs are estimated using Monte Carlo methods applied to the geospatial and temporal diversity of SMUD's distribution network. An estimate of economic value added by Time of Use (TOU) incentives and Smart Charging for SMUD's service region is also provided.