Zima, M., Wang, M., Kadle, P., and Bona, J., "Improving the Fuel Efficiency of Mobile A/C Systems with Variable Displacement Compressors," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-0700, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0700.
Variable displacement compressors have proven to be more energy efficient than the equivalent compressor with fixed displacement for mobile A/C applications. Variable displacement compressors de-stroke rather than cycle to prevent the evaporator from freezing. Cycling an internally controlled variable compressor is counter intuitive, yet results in a 15-20% reduction in the energy used by the compressor as demonstrated by tests on multiple vehicle applications. Externally controlled variable compressors have the highest energy efficiency and extending cycling to these compressors during cool temperatures reduces the compressor energy consumption by 10%.