El-Sharkawy, A., Salahuddin, A., and Komarisky, B., "Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) for Optimization of Automotive Heat Exchanger and Underhood Air Temperature," SAE Int. J. Mater. Manf. 7(2):256-261, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0729.
In this paper a design methodology for automotive heat exchangers has been applied which brings robustness into the design process and helps to optimize the design goals: as to maintain an optimal coolant temperature and to limit the vehicle underhood air temperature within a tolerable limit. The most influential design factors for the heat exchangers which affect the goals have been identified with that process. The paper summarizes the optimization steps necessary to meet the optimal functional goals for the vehicle as mentioned above. Taguchi's  Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methods have been employed to conduct this analysis in a robust way.