Duan, C., Liang, X., Li, B., Lu, P. et al., "The Quasi-Instantaneous Engine Output Torque Model Based on Indicator Diagram," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1083, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1083.
High-quality dynamics model is one of the trends of vehicle dynamics model research and development. The engine generates high frequency excitation during operation, which may cause dynamic response in full vehicle. However, the widely-used internal-combustion engine model in vehicle dynamics simulation is steady-state model, which can't describe the fluctuation of engine drive torque along with the crankshaft angle. Consequently, this article concentrates on the modeling of instantaneous engine drive torque in order to improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle model.The paper has built the quasi-instantaneous engine model based on indicator diagram. To satisfy the requirement of real-time simulation, dynamically equivalent piston-connecting rod model is built and fast interpolation algorithm is researched. The linkage was simplified to spring and damper, and decoupled the piston translation and the crank rotation movements. Based on the C language to build simulation program, and embed it into complex vehicle model to simulate various conditions, the simulation results show that the engine model was able to export crankshaft speed, drive torque periodic fluctuation in 720 degrees of crankshaft rotation cycle and satisfy real-time simulation for use in driving simulator.