Yen, M. and Abraham, J., "Computations of Soot and NO in Lifted Flames under Diesel Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1128, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1128.
In this work, computations of reacting diesel jets, including soot and NO, are carried out for a wide range of conditions by employing a RANS model in which an unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) sub-model is employed to represent turbulence/chemistry interactions. Soot kinetics is represented using a chemical mechanism that models the growth of soot precursors starting from a single aromatic ring by hydrogen abstraction and carbon (acetylene) addition and NO is modeled using the kinetics from a sub-mechanism of GRI-Mech 3.0. Tracer particles are used to track the residence time of the injected mass in the jet. For the soot and NO computations, this residence time is used to track the progression of the soot and NO reactions in time. The conditions selected reflect changes in injection pressure, chamber temperature, oxygen concentration, and density, and orifice diameter. As reported in prior work, the UFPV model predicts the ignition delay and flame lift-off height within about 25% of reported measurements.