Fontanesi, S., Cicalese, G., Cantore, G., and D'Adamo, A., "Integrated In-Cylinder/CHT Analysis for the Prediction of Abnormal Combustion Occurrence in Gasoline Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1151, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1151.
In order to improve fuel conversion efficiency, currently made spark-ignited engines are characterized by the adoption of gasoline direct injection, supercharging and/or turbocharging, complex variable valve actuation strategies. The resulting increase in power/size ratios is responsible for substantially higher average thermal loads on the engine components, which in turn result in increased risks of both thermo-mechanical failures and abnormal combustion events such as surface ignition or knock. The paper presents a comprehensive numerical methodology for the accurate estimation of knock tendency of SI engines, based on the integration of different modeling frameworks and tools. Full-cycle in-cylinder analyses are used to estimate the point-wise heat flux acting on the engine components facing the combustion chamber. The resulting cycle-averaged heat fluxes are then used in a conjugate heat transfer model of the whole engine in order to reconstruct the actual point-wise temperature distribution of the combustion chamber walls. The two simulation realms iteratively exchange information until convergence is met. Particularly, the effect of point-wise temperature distribution on the onset of abnormal combustion events is evaluated. In-cylinder analyses account for the actual autoignition behavior of the air/fuel mixture through a look-up table approach: the combustion chamber is treated as a two-zone region (burnt/unburnt), where ignition delay tabulation, generated off-line using a constant pressure reactor, is applied to the unburnt region to estimate cell-wise knock proximity. The methodology is applied to a high performance engine and the importance of an accurate representation of the combustion chamber thermal boundary conditions when aiming at precisely evaluating the surface ignition/knock tendency is highlighted.