Boehme, T., Rothschuh, M., Frank, B., Schultalbers, M. et al., "Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Powertrain Configurations with Respect to Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 3(2):176-192, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1158.
In the past decade, various Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles have been demonstrated which offer the potential of a significant reduction in fuel consumption and emission. However, this capability strongly depends on the sizing of the components, driver's usage profile and the quality of the energy management. These challenges require new optimization procedures for a systematical exploration of the design space with the objective of an optimal powertrain configuration. A novel optimization strategy based on a multi-objective problem formulation is proposed. The optimization procedure consists of a multi-objective genetic algorithm for determining the best design parameters with respect to fuel consumption and driving performance. The approach is combined with an analytical optimal control problem to find the optimal continuous and discrete control trajectories for the energy management.