Perini, F., Sahoo, D., Miles, P., and Reitz, R., "Modeling the Ignitability of a Pilot Injection for a Diesel Primary Reference Fuel: Impact of Injection Pressure, Ambient Temperature and Injected Mass," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(1):48-64, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1258.
In this paper, we studied the accuracy of computational modeling of the ignition of a pilot injectionin the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) light-duty optical engine facility, using the physical properties of a cetane/iso-cetane Diesel Primary Reference Fuel (DPRF) mixture and the reaction kinetics of a well-validated mechanism for primary reference fuels. Local fuel-air equivalence ratio measurements from fuel tracer based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments were used to compare the mixture formation predictions with KIVA-ERC-based simulations. The effects of variations in injection mass from 1 mg to 4 mg, in-cylinder swirl ratio, and near-TDC temperatures on non-combusting mixture preparation were analyzed, to assess the accuracy of the model in capturing average jet behavior, despite its inability to model the non-negligible jet-by-jet variations seen in the experiments. Fired simulations were able to capture well the measured ignitability trends at the different injection conditions tested, but showed some deviations in the minimum temperature needed for robust ignition, pointing out the need for further work to focus on achieving fully comprehensive modeling with detailed chemical kinetics of the DPRF58 mixture and a full engine geometry representation.