Ma, X., Qi, Y., Wang, Z., Xu, H. et al., "An Experimental Study of EGR-Controlled Stoichiometric Dual-fuel Compression Ignition (SDCI) Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1307, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1307.
Using EGR instead of throttle to control the load of a stoichiometric dual-fuel dieseline (diesel and gasoline) compression ignition (SDCI) engine with three-way catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment is considered a promising technology to address the challenges of fuel consumption and emissions in future internal combustion engines. High-speed imaging is used to record the flame signal in a single-cylinder optical engine with a PFI+DI dual injection system. The premixed blue flame is identified and separated using green and blue channels in RGB images. The effects of injection timing on SDCI combustion are studied. An earlier injection strategy is found to be ideal for soot reduction; however, the ignition-injection decoupling problem results in difficulties in combustion control. It is also found that a split injection strategy has advantages in soot reduction and thermal efficiency. Only 10% of the total diesel fuel for the main injection can advance the combustion phase significantly and the combustion duration can be reduced by approximate 50%. It is observed that the soot formation tendency deduced from the image results shows the potential of further soot reduction compared with the optimized single injection case.