Catapano, F., Di Iorio, S., Sementa, P., and Vaglieco, B., "Characterization of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Combustion processes and Particle Emissions in a GDI/PFI Small Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1382, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1382.
The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions.The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments. Particle size distribution function was measured in the range from 5.6 nm to 560 nm by means of an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). The effect of ethanol blending on particle emission depends on engine configuration and ethanol percentage. A strong increase of particle emission for E50 was observed in PFI configuration. For GDI configuration a larger particle emissions with respect to gasoline fuel was measured for E10. Moreover, for blends fuelling, particle emissions decrease with the ethanol percentage.