Liu, D., Xu, H., and Arumugam Sakunthalai, R., "Effects of Biodiesel Feedstock on the Emissions from a Modern Light Duty Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1394, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1394.
Biodiesel is an oxygenated alternative fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats via transesterification and the feedstock of biodiesel is diverse and varies between the local agriculture and market scenarios. Use of various feedstock for biodiesel production result in variations in the fuel properties of biodiesel. In this study, biodiesels produced from a variety of real world feedstock was examined to assess the performance and emissions in a light-duty engine. The objective was to understand the impact of biodiesel properties on engine performances and emissions. A group of six biodiesels produced from the most common feedstock blended with zero-sulphur diesel in 10%, 30% and 60% by volume are selected for the study. All the biodiesel blends were tested on a light-duty, twin-turbocharged common rail V6 engine. Their gaseous emissions (NOx, THC, CO and CO2) and smoke number were measured for the study. The emphasis of the investigation is the correlations of the fuel properties such as cetane number, fuel density, GHV (gross heat value) of combustion and oxygen content with the emissions of smoke, THC and NOx. The linear relationships are found between some of the fuel properties and engine emissions.