Russell, R., Johnson, K., Durbin, T., Davis, N. et al., "Regulated Emissions from Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Powered Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1455, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1455.
Engine manufacturers have explored many routes to reducing the emissions of harmful pollutants and conserving energy resources, including development of after treatment systems to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the engine exhaust, using alternative fuels, and using alternative fuels with after treatment systems. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is one alternative fuel in use and this paper will discuss emission measurements for several LPG vehicles.Regulated emissions were measured for five school buses, one box truck, and two small buses over a cold start Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (CS_UDDS), the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the Central Business District (CBD) cycle. In general, there were no significant differences in the gas phase emissions between the UDDS and the CBD test cycles. For the CS-UDDS cycle the total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are higher than they are from the UDDS cycle. Methane and carbon monoxide emissions are also higher, but the difference isn't as pronounced. In general, there are no significant differences in the particulate matter emissions between any of the three test cycles. The one exception is the box truck, which had the highest mileage of any vehicle. Possibly this vehicle has higher PM emissions because of decreased emission control efficiency with mileage accumulation.