Johnson, T., "Vehicular Emissions in Review," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(3):1207-1227, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1491.
The review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies in 2013. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed light-duty (LD) criteria pollutant tightening in the US; and in Europe, the continuing developments towards real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. Significant shifts are occurring in China and India in addressing their severe air quality problems. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in fuels. Projections are that we are in the early stages of oil supply stability, which could stabilize fuel prices. LD and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are or will soon be demonstrating 50% brake thermal efficiency using common approaches. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) systems and SCR filter developments. Emphasis is on low-temperature deNOx and integration of components and control. Diesel PM (particulate matter) reduction technologies are evolving around the behavior of ash deposits and SCR integration. Filters for direct injection gasoline applications are developing very rapidly, and in some cases the back pressure, light-off characteristics, and emissions reductions are very similar to standard three way catalysts (TWCs). Oxidation catalysts mainly involve developments towards stubborn problems, like low-temperature performance with exhaust with high hydrocarbon and CO, and methane oxidation. Finally, the paper discusses some key developments in gasoline gaseous emission control, focusing on matching engine calibration with emissions system characteristics; and on lean burn gasoline emissions control.