Prikhodko, V., Parks, J., Pihl, J., and Toops, T., "Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(3):1235-1243, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1505.
A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at λ=0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the λ=0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than λ=0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an “ideal” passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.