Jiao, Q. and Reitz, R., "Modeling of Equivalence Ratio Effects on Particulate Formation in a Spark-Ignition Engine under Premixed Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1607, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1607.
3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed to study particulate formation in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine under premixed conditions. A semi-detailed soot model and a chemical kinetic model, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, were coupled with a spark ignition model and the G equation flame propagation model for SI engine simulations and for predictions of soot mass and particulate number density. The simulation results for in-cylinder pressure and particle size distribution (PSDs) are compared to available experimental studies of equivalence ratio effects during premixed operation. Good predictions are observed with regard to cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and engine load. Qualitative agreements of in-cylinder particle distributions were also obtained and the results are helpful to understand particulate formation processes.