Harries, B., Hyatt, T., Leslie, K., Smith, B. et al., "Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architecture Comparison for Strong Hybridization of A Mid-Size Sedan as Part of EcoCAR2: Plugging Into the Future," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1916, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1916.
This paper describes the interdisciplinary architecture selection study conducted by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) to determine the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its entry into EcoCAR2: Plugging In To The Future. This study includes a fuel, component, and architecture comparison to determine the most viable strategy to convert the competition vehicle, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, into a strong PHEV. Performance, energy, emissions, and consumer acceptability goals were established and summarized in the Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Drive cycle simulations were used to create vehicle and component requirements for achieving the VTS targets. Three candidate architectures were then evaluated and compared for energy consumption, well to wheel (WTW) emissions, WTW petroleum energy usage, performance, packaging, and consumer acceptability. The architectures compared were a front wheel drive Series PHEV, a series-parallel through the road PHEV, and pre-transmission PHEV. Time-based performance simulations were used along with CAD for comparing space claims. A decision matrix summarizes the penalties for all three architectures and provides justification for the final decision. The architecture selection for Embry-Riddle's competition entry is a Series PHEV architecture. The series architecture had the least energy consumption, a favorable engine and interior space claim analysis, and maintained similar drivability and performance during both charge sustaining and charge depleting operation.