Boden, H., "IC-Engine Exhaust and Intake System Acoustic Source Characterization," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(3):1579-1584, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2061.
The paper gives an overview of techniques used for characterization of IC-engines as acoustic sources of exhaust and intake system noise. Some recent advances regarding nonlinear source models are introduced and discussed. To calculate insertion loss of mufflers or the level of radiated sound information about the engine as an acoustic source is needed. The source model used in the low frequency plane wave range is often the linear time invariant one-port model. The acoustic source data is obtained from experimental tests or from 1-D CFD codes describing the engine gas exchange process. The IC-engine is a high level acoustic source and in most cases not completely linear. It is therefore of interest to have models taking weak non-linearity into account while still maintaining a simple method for interfacing the source model with a linear frequency domain model for the attached exhaust or intake system. The use of source characterization in acoustic design of mufflers is also briefly discussed.