Gazzarri, J., Shrivastava, N., Jackey, R., and Borghesani, C., "Battery Pack Modeling, Simulation, and Deployment on a Multicore Real Time Target," SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 7(2):207-213, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2217.
Battery Management System (BMS) design is a complex task requiring sophisticated models that mimic the electrochemical behavior of the battery cell under a variety of operating conditions. Equivalent circuits are well-suited for this task because they offer a balance between fidelity and simulation speed, their parameters reflect direct experimental observations, and they are scalable. Scalability is particularly important at the real time simulation stage, where a model of the battery pack runs on a real-time simulator that is physically connected to the peripheral hardware in charge of monitoring and control. With modern battery systems comprising hundreds of cells, it is important to employ a modeling and simulation approach that is capable of handling numerous simultaneous instances of the basic unit cell while maintaining real time performance.In previous publications we presented a technique for the creation of a battery cell model that contains the electrochemical fingerprints of a battery cell based on equivalent circuit model fitting to experimental data. In this work we extend our previous model to represent a battery pack, featuring cell creation, placement, and connection using automation scripts, thus facilitating the design of packs of arbitrary size and electrical topology. In addition, we present an assessment of model partitioning schemes for real time execution on multicore targets to ensure efficient use of hardware resources, a balanced computational load, and a study of the potential impact of the calculation latencies inherent to distributed systems on solver accuracy. Prior to C code generation for real time execution, a model profiler assesses the model partitioning and helps determine the multicore configuration that results in the lowest average turnaround time, the time elapsed between task start and finish.The resulting model is useful in the generation of multiple operating scenarios of interest in the design of charging, balancing, and safety related procedures.