Sirotkin, R., Susova, G., and Shcherbakov, G., "Safety Risks Management Based on Integral Approach to Assurance and Control of Key Characteristics of Critical Aircraft Parts Over the Life Cycle. Russian Practice," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2262, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2262.
Within the Russian aviation industry the necessary level of reliability risks related to the failures of aircraft mechanical parts and systems vital to the safety of flight is assured via the system of activities aimed at influencing the parameters of critical parts (CP). The goal of the system is to provide a relationship between activities aimed at prevention of dangerous failures at all phases of airplane life cycle. The system operation is regulated by the normative documents and by controlling their observance.Normative documents containing requirements and recommendations were developed about 15 years ago based on the industry experience and traditions and taking into account the requirements of AS9100 series of international standards  wherever possible. The documents were developed taking into account typical safety management errors outlined in .Requirements specifying the necessity of CP-related activities are specified in the national standards concerning the organization of quality management system (QMS) in the aviation industry as well as programs of safety, reliability and maintainability activities.Recommended practices concerning the compliance to the specified requirements contain guidance on the following issues: The content and the sequence of CP-related activities during all phases of airplane/helicopter life cycle;Identification of critical characteristics of CP's;Allocation of critical (key) parameters of special processes;Preparation of substantiating documentation on CP's, necessary for Type Certification;Controlling the fulfillment of requirementsThe fulfillment of requirements and instructions concerning CP-related activities is controlled by an independent inspection body. Independent inspection body of a design organization controls the fulfillment of requirements during the preparation of substantiating documentation necessary for type certification in accordance with the Aviation Rules (AP) 23, 25, 27, 29 (##.605, 571, 1309, 602), as well as the realization of safety, reliability and maintainability programs at different stages of aircraft development. Russian AP's correspond to US FAR's and European CS's (certification specifications).The independent inspection body of a production organization controls the fulfillment of applicable requirements during preparation of substantiating documents for the production organization certification and certification of compliance to AP 21 (Parts F & G) as well as the fulfillment of safety, reliability and maintainability programs during aircraft manufacturing and operation phases.The independent inspection body of a maintenance organization controls fulfillment of applicable requirements during preparation of substantiating documents for maintenance organization certification and certification of compliance to AP 21 (Parts F & G) as well as realization of safety, reliability and maintainability programs during aircraft manufacturing and operation phases.