Kang, Y., Rakheja, S., and Zhang, W., "Relative Performance Analyses of Independent Front Axle Suspensions for a Heavy-Duty Mining Truck," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 7(2):399-405, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2320.
A range of axle suspensions, comprising hydro-pneumatic struts and diverse linkage configurations, have evolved in recent years for large size mining trucks to achieve improved ride and higher operating speeds. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of different independent front suspension linkages that have been implemented in various off-road vehicles, including a composite linkage (CL), a candle (CA), a trailing arm (TA), and a double Wishbone (DW) suspension applied to a 190 tons mining truck. Four different suspension linkages are modeled in MapleSim platform to evaluate their kinematic properties. The relative kinematic properties of the suspensions are evaluated in terms of variations in the kingpin inclination, caster, camber, toe-in and horizontal wheel center displacements considering the motion of a hydro-pneumatic strut. The results revealed the CL and DW suspensions yield superior kinematic response characteristics compared to the CA and TA suspensions. Toe-in and horizontal wheel center displacements of the CA and TA vary significantly, which could strongly affect the vehicle handling performance and cause greater tire wear. The CL and DW suspensions may thus be considered desirable for future designs of high-speed and high-performance mining trucks.