The active safety and stability of tractor and trailer (heavy-duty vehicle) have becoming big concern among the road transportation industry. The purpose of this paper is to specify the research differential braking force distribution control algorithm to improve braking safety of heavy-duty vehicle. The ideal braking force of each wheel axle should be proportional to vertical load of vehicle that is also related to the road adhesion coefficient, the load and the braking intensity. Reasonable braking force distribution can enhance its braking stability and shorten the braking distance by making full use of the road adhesion condition of each wheel. A braking force distribution algorithm is proposed, in which the objective braking force change with the axle load of vehicle.A controller is built with Matlab® software and TruckSim® software on vehicles respectively equipped with electric braking system (EBS) on typical condition and the simulation results show that the control strategy can shorten the braking distance and improve vehicle safety.