Sriwiboon, M., Tiempan, N., Kaewlob, K., and Rhee, S., "Influence of Formulation and Process Modifications on Brake Friction, Wear and Squeal: Low-Copper NAOs and Importance of Disc Wear," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2482, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2482.
The influence of processing conditions on Low-Copper NAO disc pads were investigated as part of an effort to develop Low-Copper disc pad formulations as this kind of information is not readily available in open literature. Processing conditions as well as formulation modifications are found to influence friction, pad wear, disc wear and brake squeal. Low-Copper disc pads for pick-up trucks, equivalent to an OE pad, are developed. It is also found that brake squeal measured during the SAE J2522 (AK Master) Performance testing is related to the combined total wear rate of the disc plus the inner/outer pads or the disc wear rate alone, and that there is a threshold wear rate, above which brake squeal increases rapidly.