Magryta, P., Wendeker, M., Majczak, A., Bialy, M. et al., "Simulation Studies of SI Engine that Meets the Euro5 Standard, Supply by Gasoline with the Hydrogen Addition," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2548, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2548.
The paper presents the simulation of engine model that was made in AVL Boost Software. The model assumption was the indirect additive supplying hydrogen to the SI engine. The simulation test model of a spark ignition engine, have been developed in the AVL Boost software. The model is based on a real four-cylinder engine, codenamed A14XER that meets the Euro 5 emission standard. This engine is used in passenger vehicles Opel Corsa. In order to most accurate reflection of real engine, the model was developed based on data provided by the engine manufacturer. In the simulation studies two-zone combustion model Vibe (Vibe 2 zone) was used. A General Species Transportation model was also defined, which allowed to use the fuel as a blend of gasoline and hydrogen to supply the engine. Calculations were performed for a full load for different values of rotational speed of the engine crankshaft (from 1000 rpm to 6400 rpm). Simulation studies were performed for the original fuel (gasoline) and hydrogen additives 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The fuel was injected indirectly to the engine, into the engine intake manifold. The model was verified by comparison of the calculated torque, power characteristic and the engine characteristics supplied by the manufacturer. Percentage error matching torque characteristics for these two cases was determined. A comparison of the characteristics of torque, thermal efficiency and the filling factor for different shares of hydrogen were presented.