Söder, M., Prahl Wittberg, L., Lindgren, B., and Fuchs, L., "Effect of Swirl/Tumble (Tilt) Angle on Flow Homogeneity, Turbulence and Mixing Properties," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2579, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2579.
In this work, the effect of swirl to tumble ratio on homogeneity, turbulence and mixing in a generic heavy duty Diesel engine during compression, is investigated using Large-Eddy Simulations. The main conclusion is that the relative importance of dilatation (relative volume change) increases whereas the effect of tumble breakdown decreases with the swirl to tumble ratio.In detail, we show that an increase in tumble raises the peak turbulence level and shifts the peak to earlier crank angles, which in turn leads to higher dissipation. Moreover, maximum turbulence level at top dead center is obtained for a combination of swirl and tumble rather than for pure tumble. Furthermore, it is observed that the peak turbulent kinetic energy displays levels three times greater than the initial kinetic energy of the tumble motion. Thus, energy is added to the flow (turbulence) by the piston through generation of vorticity by vorticity-dilatation interaction. Also, the intermediate swirl/tumble ratios are found to introduce large non-uniformity in the flow field, leading to a non-solid body like rotation. Swirl/tumble (tilt) angles larger than 19° are necessary for complete mixing of the gas within the engine cylinder. Taken together, the combined effect of a combination of swirl and tumble turbulence during compression is investigated. This knowledge is important both for engine development as well as more theoretical aspects regarding the breakdown of large scale structures in an engine.