Behringer, M., Aleiferis, P., OudeNijeweme, D., and Freeland, P., "Spray Formation from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Injectors for DISI Engines with Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(3):803-822, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2745.
One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ‘direct replacement’ Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with global illumination using diffused Laser light. The images were statistically analyzed to obtain spray penetration, spray tip velocity and spray ‘cone’ angles. Furthermore, droplet sizing was undertaken using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). A single spray plume was isolated for this analysis and measurements were obtained across the plume at a fixed distance from the nozzle exit. The droplet measurements were grouped into bins and maps were created showing droplet sizes and velocities against time and position during and post injection. All tests were performed at 120 bar fuel pressure, two injection chamber ‘back’ pressures (0.5 bar and 1 bar) and two injector temperatures (20 °C and 80 °C), to examine effects relevant to typical engine operating conditions with early intake stroke injection strategies, including fuel flash boiling.