Kingsbury, B., Stewart, J., Wu, Z., Douglas, R. et al., "Advanced Ceramic Substrate with Ordered and Designed Micro-Structure for Applications in Automotive Catalysis," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2805, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2805.
This study describes an innovative monolith structure designed for applications in automotive catalysis using an advanced manufacturing approach developed at Imperial College London. The production process combines extrusion with phase inversion of a ceramic-polymer-solvent mixture in order to design highly ordered substrate micro-structures that offer improvements in performance, including reduced PGM loading, reduced catalyst ageing and reduced backpressure.This study compares the performance of the novel substrate for CO oxidation against commercially available 400 cpsi and 900 cpsi catalysts using gas concentrations and a flow rate equivalent to those experienced by a full catalyst brick when attached to a vehicle. Due to the novel micro-structure, no washcoat was required for the initial testing and 13 g/ft3 of Pd was deposited directly throughout the substrate structure in the absence of a washcoat.Initial results for CO oxidation indicate that the advanced micro-structure leads to enhanced conversion efficiency. Despite an 79% reduction in metal loading and the absence of a washcoat, the novel substrate sample performs well, with a light-off temperature (LOT) only 15 °C higher than the commercial 400 cpsi sample.To test the effects of catalyst ageing on light-off temperature, each sample was aged statically at a temperature of 1000 °C, based on the Bench Ageing Time (BAT) equation. The novel substrate performed impressively when compared to the commercial samples, with a variation in light-off temperature of only 3% after 80 equivalent hours of ageing, compared to 12% and 25% for the 400 cpsi and 900 cpsi monoliths, respectively.