Widd, A. and Lewander, M., "Dynamic Properties of Vanadium and Zeolite Catalysts," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(3):911-918, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2815.
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst with ammonia as reducing agent plays a central role in today's exhaust after-treatment systems for heavy-duty vehicles and there is a wide selection of possible catalytic materials to use. In order to facilitate the design of future catalysts, several aspects of the materials must be evaluated both in steady-state and transient operation. To this end, this paper presents a methodology for comparing the dynamic properties of different catalysts using full-size engine testing. The studied characteristics include the ammonia storage capacity, the effect of starting with an empty catalyst, the transient response to temperature gradients and changes in the urea dosing level. The temperature response is of particular importance in transient operation, where temperature increases may lead to substantial ammonia slip. A vanadium catalyst is compared to a Cu-SAPO-34 catalyst, and they show significant differences in their dynamic response.