Schacht, H., Leibetseder, M., Bretterklieber, N., Schmidt, S. et al., "Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e Class PHEV Two-Wheelers," SAE Technical Paper 2014-32-0014, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-32-0014.
Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013  for type approval coming into force 2016, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and therewith more expensive.Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered by the actual competitive product price.Therefore, new vehicle concepts have to be introduced on the market.A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-32-0592  and 2012-32-0083 . The low cost range extender is composed of a simple, throttle-less operated, port controlled two stroke engine and an externally controlled generator. The number of sensors is intentionally reduced for economic reasons.In this paper, the experimental investigation focusing on the control of the above described range extender subsystem for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers and its impact on the tail pipe emissions are presented.Different configurations of range extender system controls, categorized according to their complexity, will be discussed and evaluated with regard to their impact on tail pipe emissions in the official ECE-R47 test cycle. The results of these studies determine the final operation strategy of the hybrid system to fulfil the emission limits in accordance with the procedure described in regulation 168/2013 .The research has been performed by a research consortium under the patronage of the ECO-PowerDrive project , which is funded by the Austrian government within the COMET excellence initiative.