Daemme, L., Penteado, R., Zotin, F., and Errera, M., "Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from a Flex Fuel Motorcycle Fuelled with Various Gasoline/Ethanol Blends," SAE Technical Paper 2014-32-0032, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-32-0032.
Motorcycle sales have increased consistently during the last decade mostly in developing countries, especially in the BRICS. Low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars associated to the economic growth are the main reason for such trend.Emission limits have become stricter and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Flex fuel motorcycles have now become available, but effects of the combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends on the emissions are still an open issue that requires further understanding.This paper presents the most recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends: E22, E61, E85 and 100% ethanol. Both regulated (CO, THC, NOx) and unregulated emissions (Aldehydes, NMHC, NH3, N2O) were studied.The main conclusion is that motorcycles equipped with three-way catalytic converters presented significant ammonia emissions in the tailpipe when compared to pre catalyst emissions. The same trend was observed with nitrous oxide.