Gai, P., Esposito, F., Schiavi, R., Di Natale, M. et al., "Towards an Open Source Framework for Small Engine Controls Development," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Electron. Electr. Syst. 8(1):22-31, 2015, doi:10.4271/2014-32-0070.
The paper describes the components of an envisioned open source framework that supports several stages in the model-based development of two- and three-wheelers software controls. The proposed solution supports the runtime execution on an OSEK-compatible  real-time operating system for multicore platforms. The framework consists of a modeling and simulation tool (including hierarchical state machines) and a code generator for the development of the functional model of controls and the definition of their task implementation; an OSEK/AUTOSAR operating system and device driver stack; OS and I/O configuration tools. The platform has been released open-source under an industry-friendly license. Our framework is currently in use for the development of innovative two-three wheelers control systems at Piaggio. In this paper we describe the experience matured in the application development, the benefits and current limitations of the approach. In particular, the result of this study has been a demonstrator platform which includes a BLDC motor control written using the proposed framework.