Kinoshita, E., Itakura, A., Otaka, T., Koide, K. et al., "Diesel Combustion Characteristics of Coconut Oil Ester Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2014-32-0084, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-32-0084.
In order to improve the cold flow properties of coconut oil biodiesel and to reduce the lifecycle CO2 emission by using bio-alcohol at biodiesel manufacturing, varying the types of alcohol used at transesterification was examined. The pour point of coconut oil ester decreases as the carbon number of alcohol increases. Among 5 ester fuels, the pour point of coconut oil isobutyl ester (CiBE) made from isobutanol is lowest, −12.5 °C, compared to that of coconut oil methyl ester (CME), highest, −5 °C. The pour point of coconut oil 1-butyl ester (CBE) is −10 °C, second lowest. Furthermore, CBE, CiBE, CME and JIS No.2 diesel fuel (gas oil) were tested using a DI diesel engine. CBE and CiBE have shorter ignition delay compared to the gas oil although slightly longer than CME. CBE and CiBE have the same thermal efficiency and NOx emissions compared to the gas oil. HC, CO and Smoke emissions of coconut oil ester fuels slightly increase when the ester molecule carbon number increases. However, these exhaust emissions are lower than that of the gas oil. From the experimental results, it is concluded that CBE and CiBE are good alternative diesel fuels.