Wasil, J. and Wallner, T., "Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Using Isobutanol-Extended Fuel in Recreational Marine Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Engines," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(3):1062-1068, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-32-0087.
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10).Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.